Immigrant Oral Histories

Woonspe Napciŋwaŋka: First-syllable Verbs

Review the familiar verb cin, then listen to the forms of ĥtani, a first-syllable verb.


Waciŋ Waciŋ, I want.
Yaciŋ Yaciŋ, You want.
Ciŋ Ciŋ, S/He/It wants.
Uŋciŋ Uŋciŋ, You and I want
Uŋciŋpi Uŋciŋpi, We want.
Yaciŋpi Yaciŋpi, You all want
Ciŋ´pi Ciŋ´pi, They want.


Ĥtayani Ĥtayani, You work.
Ĥtani Ĥtani, S/He/It works.
Ĥtauŋni Ĥtauŋni, You and I work.
Ĥtauŋnipi Ĥtauŋnipi, We work.
Ĥtayanipi Ĥtayanipi, You all work
Ĥtanipi Ĥtanipi, They work.
Baksa Baksa, S/He/It cuts off (something)
Capa Capa, S/He/It stabs, pierces, punctures (something)
E´hde E´hde, S/He/It places, puts, sets (something)
Ma´ni Ma´ni, S/He/It walks
Naĥuŋ Naĥuŋ, S/He/It hears (something)
Naŝduta Naŝduta, S/He/It slips (with the foot)
Piye Piye, S/He/It fixes (something)
Tokŝu Tokŝu, S/He/It transports (something)
Waci Waci, S/He/It dances
Wo´hdaka Wo´hdaka, S/He/It chats, converses, talks
Wo´żu Wo´żu, S/He/It plants, sows

Selected U.S.-Dakota War of 1862 commemoration projects and programs are made possible by the Legacy Amendment's Arts and Cultural Heritage Fund, through the vote of Minnesotans on November 4, 2008.